The composition of red blood cells in red blood cells contains a compound of a protein with iron atoms.
In the body, it takes various forms:
- the form in conjunction with oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin, it gives arterial blood a bright red color,
- the so-called reduced form, when oxygen is delivered to tissues,
- carboxyhemoglobin, a form in combination with carbon dioxide, which is why venous blood acquires a dark shade.
The function of hemoglobin is to deliver oxygen to the body’s cells from the lungs, bind carbon dioxide, and return it to the lungs.
Its high blood content is typical for residents of highlands, climbers, whose body is adapted to rarefied air, poor in oxygen. Thus, low hemoglobin elevate exercise, intense walk.
The hemoglobin level in the blood is determined by a general blood test.
- for men 130-160g / l, the lower limit is 120, the upper is 180g / l,
- for women 120-140g / l, in pregnant women the lower limit of normal is 110g / l,
- in children, indicators depend on age; up to 18 years, they gradually rise to normal "adult" values.
Symptoms of low hemoglobin
Anemia (anemia) is not a disease, but a symptom of a pathology of health, which is accompanied by a decrease in the number of red blood cells.
Common signs of anemia:
- sleep disorder
- excessive whiteness of the skin and mucous membranes, “blueness” of the lips,
- frequent dizziness
- leg cramps
- increased heart rate.
Before treatment and changing the diet, you should understand the causes of low hemoglobin.
Causes of Anemia
Iron deficiency. This type of anemia accompanies a perverted appetite. I want to eat earth, clay, paper, chalk, inhale the unpleasant sharp smells of gasoline, paints, wet ash of tobacco. The nails are brittle, concave, and mucous membranes are inflamed. The skin is dry, with cracks. Hair fall out. Muscle fiber weakness is the cause of voluntary urination. A characteristic sign of iron deficiency is hypersensitivity to cold, arms and legs are constantly freezing, frequent colds. Child lag in growth and development, lethargy, illness.
Folic Acid Deficiency (Vitamin B9) as a result of intestinal surgery, prolonged use of medications against seizures (Phenobarbital), alcohol abuse. In adults, fatigue, weakness, shortness of breath, frequent palpitations are increased, the tongue is inflamed, lack of appetite, headache or dizziness. Memory impairment, irritability, icteric state.
The hemoglobin level is increased after prolonged feeding of the child with goat milk, in which there is little vitamin B9. To prevent this kind of anemia, exchange milk formulas, donor milk.
Cyanocobalamin Deficiency (Vitamin B12). With this type of anemia, coordination of movements is impaired. Changed gait, stiffness, clumsiness. Violation of touch, false tingling of the skin. Bright red, "varnished" tongue. The condition requires an increase in hemoglobin.
Acute or chronic form of hemolytic anemia - groups of diseases associated with the massive destruction of red blood cells. The body enhances their synthesis. Symptoms are similar to cholelithiasis: red or brown color of urine, yellowness of the skin and sclera of the eyes, delayed child development.
The exact cause of anemia is revealed by a hematologist who treats diseases of the blood system. To make a diagnosis, a biochemical blood test must be taken.
Hemoglobin raises dietary adjustment, intake of vitamins.
Increased hemoglobin in iron deficiency
This type of anemia requires divalent heme iron, the body completely assimilates this form. There is a lot of it in meat food, kidneys and liver.
Plant foods contain trivalent non-heme iron - legumes, buckwheat, whole grains, parsley, and nettle.
To convert the trivalent form to the divalent, vitamin C is needed, there is a lot of it in greenery. Legumes are best combined with vegetables rich in vitamin C.
Raspberry is an iron champion. Pork and beef liver, veal, spinach, buckwheat, wheat bran, hercules, pomegranates, prunes, apples, plums, peaches, dried apricots, rose hips, brewer's yeast, cocoa, seafood, baked potato with peel, blackcurrant, cranberries, nuts increase hemoglobin .
Pomegranate juice increases hemoglobin, but is dangerous for constipation.
Do not consume iron products with calcium, which slows down the absorption of iron. Refuse or cut coffee, black tea, cheese.
How to increase hemoglobin in deficiency of B9
Supporters of plant foods get enough folic acid. There is a lot of it in beef liver, legumes, citrus fruits, lettuce, tomatoes, cabbage, melons, watermelons, apples, green onions, peas, beets, carrots, oats, buckwheat, millet, walnuts, yeast, cottage cheese, cheese, liver, egg yolk, grapes, pomegranates, apricots, black currants, bananas, kiwi, turnip.
With a sufficient supply of the listed products, folic acid is synthesized by the microflora of the large intestine - there is no need to increase hemoglobin.
Vitamin B9 destroys sunlight, heat treatment.
Fresh legumes contain substances that prevent the breakdown of proteins, inhibit digestion. The use of legumes in sprouted form improves their assimilation, avoids flatulence.
Germination of wheat grains 4 times increases the content of folic acid, vitamins of group B. Only 50 g of the useful product contains the daily intake of vitamin B9.
The lack of folic acid causes the abuse of coffee, tea, smoking, alcohol.
Vitamin B9 is necessary during pregnancy, regulates the formation of nerve cells in the embryo, and helps increase hemoglobin. Folic acid is prescribed before conception, continue the course after pregnancy.
Treatment of anemia with a deficiency of B12
If the cause of anemia is a deficiency of cobalamins, to increase hemoglobin, include calf or beef liver, oysters, herring, sardines, salmon, egg yolks, and soy products in the diet. Vitamin B12 is less in pork, beef, chicken, hard cheese, seafood, seaweed, milk, herbs and vegetables.
Include vitamin complexes in the diet to eliminate vitamin B12 deficiency and increase hemoglobin with a predominance of plant foods in the diet.
For better absorption of vitamin B12, calcium is required, which is rich in dairy products.
The source of cyanocobalamin is beer shivering, ask the pharmacy. Their intake restores the production of B12 in the intestine, increases hemoglobin.
How to normalize hemoglobin levels
With reduced hemoglobin, you need to eat intensely. To do this, introduce more proteins into the diet - meat, especially veal, fish, beef liver. A large amount of protein is found in legumes, grains and cereals. But you do not need to eat only vegetarian food, protein must be present necessarily. Juices are very useful after a hearty meat dinner, as they accelerate the breakdown of protein. Dark buckwheat honey stimulates the production of hemoglobin well, but the use of tea and coffee needs to be reduced, they lower hemoglobin. It is better to replace them with juice or compotes.
With increased hemoglobin, blood viscosity is often increased, the doctor should also prescribe medications to dilute it. It is dangerous to engage in self-medication in such cases.
Treatment of elevated hemoglobin levels with an appropriate diet is also possible. It is necessary to limit the consumption of fatty meat food, eat more fish and seafood.
- site "Limfik.ru" Description of hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the protein that has been best studied. It was discovered in 1851 by the German physiologist Otto Finko. This protein makes up 95% of the total erythrocyte volume and consists of 4 subunits. The main component of hemoglobin is ferrous iron, which, however, can be oxidized to ferric iron - in this case, it loses its ability to bind to oxygen and transport it. Normally, the content of such hemoglobin is not more than 1-2%, and therefore this does not affect gas exchange in any way. Normal hemoglobin is called hemoglobin-A1, A2 and A3, there are also many types of abnormal hemoglobin, which is not able to provide oxygen delivery.
How hemoglobin carries oxygen
Due to the high partial pressure in the lungs, oxygen combines with the hemoglobin iron, such oxygen is called oxyhemoglobin. Moreover, the hemoglobin molecule has positive cooperativity, that is, as soon as one of the four places for transportation becomes occupied by oxygen, the addition of oxygen is simplified. This allows you to reduce the formation of carboxyhemoglobin - to prevent the combination of hemoglobin with carbon monoxide, which is present in some amount in the air. Then, with a blood stream, hemoglobin delivers oxygen to the cells, where it "gives" myoglobin - this is the precursor of hemoglobin, which is contained in the cells. The ability of myoglobin to take oxygen is somewhat different than that of hemoglobin, it is able to take it already at a partial pressure of 1-2 mm RT. Art., while hemoglobin, in order to receive and retain oxygen, a pressure of at least 25 mm Hg is required. Art. Further, oxygen from myoglobin enters the mitochondria - the “energy stations” of the cell.
In parallel with this, the reverse process occurs, the hemoglobin is saturated with carbon dioxide, which is carried away by the flow of venous blood to the lungs, where it returns to atmospheric air. The hemoglobin has a lifespan of about 150 days, after which, using special proteins, the body utilizes it using liberated iron to build new hemoglobin molecules. With all the importance of hemoglobin, it is extremely toxic, and therefore, with the destruction of hemoglobin molecules and the ingress of iron into the general bloodstream, hemolytic jaundice can occur, followed by acute renal failure.
One of the most important laboratory tests is an analysis of the content of red blood cells and hemoglobin. The analysis is done within 1-2 hours, when it comes to emergency situations, in a clinic, the analysis is usually ready the next day after blood donation. If necessary, a laboratory can conduct a study of the hemoglobin molecule, this is especially important for anemia due to the abnormal structure of hemoglobin, as a result of which it loses its ability to carry oxygen.
Symptoms of Anemia
The feeling of morning weakness, tinnitus, frequent headaches and dizziness, inability to perform even minor physical exertion, rapid fatigue indicates a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood.
But one must understand that anemia is not just temporary weakness or fatigue, which tend to go away on its own - it is a disease that requires adequate treatment.
If there is a slight decrease in hemoglobin, anemia can be diagnosed only by a laboratory method - using a blood test. And while the disease could not go too far, a balanced diet with a sufficient complex of vitamins and minerals serves as an effective treatment. Every day in your diet you need to include more than 20 mg of iron, which helps to normalize hemoglobin in the blood.
Symptoms of moderate to severe anemia are:
- feeling unwell,
- dizziness and weakness
- cracks in the corners of the mouth,
- dry skin
- blue eye sclera,
- yellowed skin (especially the hands and in the nasolabial triangle),
- nails are flaking,
- dry and brittle hair, their loss gradually begins.
Traditional Anemia Treatments
Traditional medicine offers a huge number of drugs that help increase hemoglobin in the blood.
It is important to note that women need much more iron than men, because every month during critical days they lose it.
Making an appropriate diet for anemia on your own is quite difficult. Iron is present in food in two forms: heme (found in animal products, fat, eggs, fish, meat) and non-heme (in cereals, plant products, herbs, legumes, berries, fruits, black bread). Hemic iron is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract in an amount of 25-30%, non-heme iron - only 5-10%.
For the prevention of anemia doctors throughout the year recommend including cereals, dried fruits, rosehips, fresh herbs, apples, natural juices, buckwheat and oatmeal, and brown bread in the diet.
Also, iron is contained in 100 g of the following products in this proportion:
- dried porcini mushrooms - 35 g,
- green beans - 8 mg,
- garden strawberry - 7.8 mg,
- pork liver - 20 mg,
- cocoa - 12 mg
- blueberries - 7.1 mg
- rabbit meat - 4.6 mg
- beef - 2.4 mg
- carrots - 0.8 mg
- chicken egg - 1.6 mg.
Simultaneously with iron-containing foods, it is recommended to introduce into the diet those foods that contain a sufficient amount Vitamin C. It helps the body better absorb iron. Therefore, it is advisable to end any meal with a serving of fresh fruits and vegetables or with freshly squeezed juice.
How to increase hemoglobin in the blood / shutterstock.com
Products such as natural coffee, chocolate, condensed milk, cheese, wheat flour, on the contrary, inhibit the absorption of iron into the blood. And they should be avoided by those who want to increase hemoglobin.
However, only iron-containing products can not cope with anemia, so doctors supplement them with various medications, for example, Ferroplex, Ferrogradumet, Fitoferrolactol, Konferon, etc. Vitamin B12 is prescribed without fail. It is produced in the human body from brewer's yeast, meat, fish, eggs and dairy products.
In severe anemia, red blood cell transfusion. Only the doctor is obliged to determine the tactics and treatment strategy based on the type of anemia and the patient's condition.
Folk remedies for increasing hemoglobin
There are many folk remedies for increasing hemoglobin in the blood. Some of them are really very effective, and this is confirmed by official medicine.
An effective and proven folk remedy is freshly ground on a grater carrots with olive oil or sour cream. Great for anemia natural juices: apple, carrot, beetroot. They can be used both together and separately.
How to increase hemoglobin in the blood / shutterstock.com
An effective remedy is kefir with buckwheat. Preparing a dish is extremely simple: rinse a glass of buckwheat, pour kefir and leave overnight. You can add honey to improve the taste.
The following mixture is considered one of the most pleasant and delicious folk remedies for increasing hemoglobin: finely chopped apricots, raisins and walnuts and pour over honey. A few tablespoons of this mixture per day not only improve blood counts, but are also able to provide your body with other necessary vitamins and minerals.
You can make a mixture of aloe leaves. To do this, twist 1 kg of aloe (at least 5 years old) in a meat grinder, pour 2 liters of natural honey and 2.5 liters of cahors. The mixture is infused for five days in a dark place. Take before meals 1 tbsp. spoon three times a day. Treatment should be continued until the remedy is over.
When choosing between drugs and folk remedies to increase hemoglobin, give preference to the first. But it is likely that your attending physician will approve the decision to use alternative methods, because often folk remedies for increasing hemoglobin levels are used simultaneously with iron medications.
If, after the course of treatment, hemoglobin is still kept at a low level, additional examinations are necessary. Proper diagnosis is the basis of treatment effectiveness.
Anemia is significantly affected by people who lack oxygen in their professional activities - divers, climbers, miners. This can easily be attributed to chemical workers and smokers. Patients suffering from hemorrhoids, bleeding polyps, trophic ulcers, menorrhagia are also at risk. And people who do heavy physical work should monitor their iron levels with a blood test.
Proper nutrition and a balanced diet are only half the battle in the fight against anemia. An important addition will be the daily morning exercises, walks in the fresh air and physical activity.