Burns in children are damage to the skin as a result of exposure to chemical, thermal, electrical, radiation factors. The skin of a one-year-old baby is thinner and more tender than that of an adult, and has high thermal conductivity. Injuries to children are more difficult. Help includes removing the damaging factor, cooling the wound, antiseptic treatment. Often burned limbs (arms, legs, fingers) of infants.
Common types of burns in children
- thermal - damage to the skin as a result of the harmful effects of boiling water, steam, fire,
- chemical - damage to the skin due to contact with chemicals (more often, household chemicals),
- radiation - occur with a long stay on the street during hours of solar activity,
- electric - appear as a result of improper operation of electrical equipment.
|First||The skin is red, soreness, hyperthermia.|
|Second||The formation of blisters with exudate.|
|Third||At 3A degree, the basal layer of the skin is preserved, at 3B degree, complete necrosis occurs. Scab formation, reduction of pain sensitivity.|
|Fourth||Carbonization of the skin, damage to muscles, bones, tendons.|
How to treat at home
The severity of burn injury treatment depends on the timeliness of first aid. Urgent is the elimination of a damaging factor - a source of electric current, hot steam or liquid, a chemical substance, ultraviolet rays. If possible, free the affected area from clothing. The degree of damage should be assessed - at home it is allowed to treat injuries of the first and second degree.
A 1-2 degree burn in a child should be washed with running cool water for at least 15-20 minutes.
After cooling, apply a bandage to the damaged spot with anti-burn ointment (Panthenol, Bepanten, Olazol). When suppuration of a wound, it is treated with antiseptic, regenerating ointments as prescribed by a doctor (Levomekol, Levosil). If there is an elevated temperature, Ibufen, paracetamol are prescribed.
Alternative methods will help treat a child’s burn, reduce pain, accelerate healing.
|Ingredients||Method of application, intended effect|
|Gruel from pumpkin, potato, carrot||Anoint an open wound. Relieves soreness, swelling.|
|Aloe juice||Apply to dressing, replace every 12 hours. Analgesic effect.|
|White cabbage leaf||Steam, attach to the wound. Relieves pain.|
|Soda solution||To cook according to the following recipe: 1 tsp soda in a glass of water. Treat the dressing, replace as necessary.|
|Egg white||Beat fresh protein with a fork, put the mass on the wound, cover with a napkin on top. Helps relieve pain.|
|Chamomile broth||Make a decoction: 1 teaspoon of chamomile in a glass of boiling water. Apply to dressing. Anesthetic.|
|Chilled fermented milk products (sour cream, kefir)||Help with sunburn. Treat the wound.|
With minor damage, you can use the usual baby cream if the skin sloughs and peels off.
When is specialized assistance required?
- third, fourth degree burns,
- damage to internal organs (esophagus, tongue, when ingesting poisonous liquid),
- damage to the face, genitals, eyes, mucous membranes, regardless of degree, area,
- the area of the damaged area is more than two children's palms,
- temperature rise,
- suppuration of the wound,
- the formation of blisters (the blister can swell, burst in the absence of medication, which contributes to infection).
Features of the treatment of burns in infants
It is important to urgently call an ambulance team and continue treatment in the hospital. There is a chance of getting a burn shock. The medicines listed below should be purchased at a pharmacy and used only on the advice of a doctor.
|Ibuprofen (from the third month of life), Paracetomol (from birth)||Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect. Drugs are prescribed if necessary to anesthetize, bring down the increased temperature in case of a burn. Dosage - depending on the age of the baby.|
|Panthenol, Bepanten, Dexpanthenol||Treat the burn to the child under thermal, solar exposure. The active substance is dexpanthenol, accelerates epithelization, scarring of the wounds of the newborn. Apply ointment on a clean cloth, attach to a damaged place.|
|Solcoseryl (gel and ointment)||Regenerating ointment, helps to heal wounds after sun and thermal burns.|
|Olazol (aerosol)||The peculiarity of the drug is that it contains 4 active ingredients at once: sea buckthorn oil, boric acid, benzocaine, chloramphenicol. Accelerates the healing process with infected wounds. It has anesthetic, antibacterial, regenerative effect. Apply as needed.|
|Kontrakrubeks (gel), for children over 6 months||Prevention of the formation of pathological scars and scars. Smear the affected area 2 times a day, making rubbing movements.|
Apply drugs until the wound is completely healed. The defeat of the first degree heals in 5-7 days, the second degree - up to 14 days.
To avoid injury, parents should be mindful of young children. At home, children's access to chemical fluids, fire, hot objects, and electrical appliances should be closed. In order for the kids to be burned, it is necessary to look after them, prohibit touching dangerous objects, and limit the time spent in the sun.
Causes of Burns
Typically, childhood burns result from household injuries.
Among them are:
- Thermal - obtained under the influence of heated objects or substances, flame and steam.
- Chemical - in contact with chemical caustic substances.
- Electrical - can be obtained when playing with household appliances and wiring, from a lightning strike.
- Radiation (radiation) - arise due to a long stay in direct sunlight.
Often a burn occurs not only on the skin, but also on the mucous membrane. This happens if the child drank boiling water or chemical liquid. In this case, the oral cavity and esophagus may be affected.
About thermal effects
Thermal burns in a child appear when in contact with hot objects, boiling water, from exposure to hot air or steam. This is the most common type of burn in children, most often provoked by a parental oversight.
The following severity levels of injury are distinguished:
- 1 degree - characterized by redness, swelling and itching of the skin. The temperature can rise to 37.2 degrees. The child experiences pain and burning in the injured area.
- 2 degree - the outer layer of the epidermis and the lower layers of the dermis are damaged. There are blisters filled with an aqueous liquid. Significant redness and swelling on the injured surface. The pain is more pronounced than at 1 degree, the temperature rises to 38.5 degrees.
- Grade 3 - damage to the dermis reaches the subcutaneous fat, soft tissue necrosis occurs. The skin is dry, covered with scabs of brown, dark red or yellowish color, no blisters. Body temperature is high. There is no pain syndrome.
- Stage 4 - is considered extremely difficult. The skin dies completely, carbonized bone and muscle tissue. A child who has suffered such an injury most often dies within a few hours.
Children's skin, due to its thin and delicate layer, can quickly be injured. Therefore, with injuries of any degree, you must immediately act.
If a child burns, first aid will be as follows:
- Elimination of the source of damage.
- It is necessary to free the affected area from clothing, but if it is stuck, then you can’t tear it off in any case.
- With burns of 1 and 2 degrees, the sore spot should immediately be lowered under running cold water 12-18 degrees and held for 15-20 minutes. Nursing women apply a wet towel to the damaged area. At 3 and 4 degrees, clean tissue is applied to the affected area. If the lesion is large, then you can completely wrap the child in a wet sheet.
- When bubbles with a cloudy or clear liquid appear, a dry sterile napkin is applied to them, or previously moistened with cool water or furatsilin.
- Be sure to call an ambulance.
To help with burns at home, children should only if the adult has theoretical knowledge.
To relieve pain from a burn, at home, the child can be given an anesthetic drug - Ibuprofen or Nurofen. Antipyretic drugs in the form of tablets or suppositories, such as Paracetamol, can help bring down the temperature. To relieve swelling and itching, it is necessary to give an antihistamine - Fenistil or Zodak.
You need to know how to handle a burn in a child before an ambulance arrives. With an injury of 1 and 2 degrees, the fast-acting agents Olazol, Panthenol, Solcoseryl, Pantestin are applied to the affected area. You need to use them after cooling the sore spot. The child should often drink water, you can slightly salt it.
You can not open the blisters, as the wound can become infected, in addition, this is a painful procedure for the child. What to smear a child’s burn with is impossible, because it is oily solutions and ointments due to the fact that a film forms that closes the skin’s access to air. In this case, the temperature of the affected area rises and the burn area increases. It is impossible to treat the wound with antiseptic agents (green, iodine, alcohol, etc.). With a 3 degree burn, it is forbidden to apply special sprays and creams.
Sunburn in a child: first aid
In summer, children are often outdoors under direct exposure to the sun, and there is a risk of radiation burn. Symptoms in this case are: a feeling of heat, redness of the skin, itching, the appearance of blisters on the affected surface. Over time, the dermis begins to peel off and exfoliate.
If there is a sunburn in a child, what to do in such a situation? First of all, you need to protect the child from exposure to ultraviolet rays - to bring him into the house. Attach a cloth dampened with cool water to the wounds. This raises the question of how to spread a burn on a child, so as not to aggravate the wound. For this, special sprays and creams (Panthenol) are used. If this is not possible, then take the victim into the shade, undress, lay horizontally, raising his head.
In addition, you can use folk remedies:
- in the absence of blisters, lubricate the skin with low-fat sour cream or sour milk,
- apply lotions with chamomile, green tea or grated potato gruel,
- scalded cabbage leaf, which can be applied at night to a sore spot, will help relieve swelling.
It is necessary to provide the child with a plentiful drink and lower the temperature with the help of antipyretic drugs (Nurafen).
If the child received a serious burn from the sun, then he feels sick, dizzy and aching, fever, chills, limbs swell. These symptoms appear a few hours after getting a burn. In such situations, you need to urgently seek medical help.
Causes of thermal and chemical childhood burns
In most cases, children become victims of thermal or chemical effects on the skin. Causes of burns caused by high temperatures:
- The sun. A huge share of thermal burns in children is occupied by the aggressive influence of the sun. You can not be with the baby on the beach during the hours of greatest solar activity (from 12 to 16 hours), the rest of the time you need to use sunscreen.
- Boiling water. Kitchen is one of the main sources of danger. Hot coffee, a pot of boiling water, a kettle can cause a serious burn.
- Hot items. The kid can suffer from hot food, hot stones, which are used to maintain high temperature in the bath, the soles of a heated iron, curling irons. Some parents prefer to iron bedding and clothing, sitting on a chair or on an unfolded sofa. A burn from an iron in a child in this case is not uncommon.
- Open fire. In everyday life, children have a risk of getting burned by means of an open flame - by touching their hand on the burner of the gas stove, on a camping trip by the fire.
Less commonly, children get a burn caused by chemicals such as acid or alkali. Aggressive compounds are present in our lives in the form of means for removing soot from pans and hob, gels for washing toilets and removing rust, liquids for bleaching clothes. Some of them can only be used with protective gloves, which the child may not know about.
What are the burns?
Thermal or chemical burns are classified by severity. Doctors distinguish four stages:
- First one. The upper layer of the dermis is affected - redness appears at the site of exposure, the child feels soreness.
- The second one. This degree of damage is characterized by involvement in the inflammatory process of the subcutaneous layer. In the exposure zone, 1 or more bubbles filled with a clear liquid may appear. The child may complain of pain, burning, which do not go away for a long period.
- The third. A dangerous type of burn requiring immediate medical attention. Damage to tissues captures the surface and inner layers of the dermis, muscles. The third stage can have two varieties - A and B. The first is characterized by the appearance of bubbles in a dense shell, the formation of scabs, and swelling of the adjacent areas. In stage B, there is the presence of pus, tissue necrosis, ulcers.
- Fourth. At this stage, the skin, subcutaneous layer, muscles, tendons suffer. Sometimes a child’s burn reaches the bone - carbonization and complete necrosis of the affected tissues are noted.
First aid for a burn at home
Timely and competently rendered first aid is the key to a successful burn treatment. In addition, the correct actions of parents help to avoid exacerbating the problem, because then it will be much more difficult to treat. With a thermal burn (exposure to an iron, hot water), experts recommend acting according to the following scheme:
If a burn has occurred due to exposure to chemicals (acid or alkali), the affected area should be kept under a stream of cold water. This must be done in order to wash off the remnants of an aggressive compound from the skin. Burns in children are recommended to be washed for at least a quarter of an hour. You can neutralize the acid component with a solution of soda with water (2-3%) or soap, and the alkaline component by washing with a weak solution of citric acid.
How to treat thermal and chemical burns?
Treatment of burns of the 2nd-3rd degree should be medicamentous, and alternative recipes can be used as an auxiliary therapy. In severe cases, immediate hospitalization, skin transplantation is indicated. The course of drugs should be prescribed by a doctor who is guided by the severity of the condition of the small patient, age, and also takes into account contraindications. Treatment of chemical and thermal burns is almost the same, but in the first case, the degree of damage to the skin is finally determined only after 5 - 7 days.
The goal of therapy is to relieve inflammation, dry the wound (if necessary), stop the reproduction of pathogens. In this case, the body can independently cope with the damage and restore the epidermis. In a standard situation, burn treatment is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Elimination of hyperemia, reduction of inflammation. Dexpanthenol-based preparations are used. Such funds are recommended to be applied in the first minutes after receiving a burn. In the presence of blisters or weeping ulcers, stronger drugs are used for treatment (we recommend reading: child's blisters on the body: what is it and how to eliminate them?).
- Antiseptic. Sometimes the doctor recommends pre-treating the wound with Chlorhexidine, Miramistin, a solution of Furacilin or potassium permanganate to eliminate microorganisms that could get on the surface of the wound. In this case, it is advisable to remove the remains of an antiseptic by wetting the wound with a piece of gauze or bandage.
- It is recommended to apply an ointment containing the antibiotic to the affected area. It can be Levomekol, Doxycycline. Apply a thin layer twice a day.
- In more severe cases, the doctor may prescribe antibiotics inside.
- If relief does not occur within 2-3 days, you should consult a specialist. Your doctor may change your appointment or offer hospitalization.
- If the baby suffered up to a year, it must be shown to the pediatrician, regardless of the degree of damage. At the same time, infants are less likely to become a victim of burns, in contrast to one-year-old children and preschool children.
In a hospital, doctors carry out primary treatment of a wound, remove particles of garbage, foreign bodies, as well as dead tissue. Next, a complex of anti-shock measures is performed: analgesic analgesics, the use of sedatives, a course of infusion therapy. При необходимости ребенку назначают антибиотики, а также экстренную вакцинацию от столбняка.
Существует масса способов помочь ребенку подручными средствами в домашних условиях. Traditional medicine recipes are time-tested, they do not use expensive components. Most Popular:
- Raw potatoes. To the place of the burn, you can apply a root crop chopped into gruel or chopped into small plates. Carrot and beetroot also have healing properties. You can smear the burn with juice squeezed from these vegetables.
- Cabbage. Fresh leaves have the ability to relieve inflammation, lower the temperature of the burned area of the skin. A cabbage leaf should be attached to the wound, and after half an hour, replace it with fresh.
- Oak bark. Prepare a decoction of oak bark, moisten a bandage folded several times in it, attach to the wound. The procedure is done 3-4 times a day.
Among the possible consequences:
- Infection of the damaged area. A wet wound is an ideal medium for the propagation of pathogens (we recommend reading: treatment of a wet wound in a child). The inflammatory process caused by bacteria can lead to burn phlegmon or pyoderma.
- After wound healing, scars may form. In addition to a cosmetic problem, such consequences can cause limitation of mobility and functionality of the limbs (palms, feet, joints of hands, feet).
- If the area of damaged skin reaches 20 - 25% of the surface of the whole body, dehydration of the body is noted. If the measures are not taken in time, serious consequences are possible, up to a fatal outcome.
What can not be done with a burn?
In a stressful situation, many parents make a number of mistakes, trying to ease the suffering of the baby as soon as possible. If the child is burned, the following actions are not allowed:
- The use of oil-based medications, especially in the first minutes after the baby burned his hand with an iron or scalded with boiling water. The fat component of the product forms an impermeable film on the surface of the wound, which is why the damaged tissue does not cool down, but continues to collapse under the influence of high temperature.
- Do not use alcohol-containing products: brilliant green, iodine, tincture of calendula. Such drugs irritate the wound surface, which contributes to the aggravation of pain.
- Do not rush to immediately anoint the wound after a burn with a medical device - first you need to lower the temperature of the affected area.
- If bubbles have formed at the burn site, do not puncture them - it is advisable that this manipulation be performed by a specialist. Otherwise, there is a high probability of infection of the wound, which can lead to complications.
- Do not cover the wound with a band-aid even after the skin has peeled off. Better use a sterile, breathable dressing.
Cases of injury to children in contact with aggressive chemicals are quite common. With such burns, a sharp destruction of the upper tissues occurs, since children's skin is very delicate and sensitive. Kids are very painful for chemical burns. Especially dangerous cases of contact with funds in the eyes or esophagus of the child.
If this happens, you first need to determine which traumatic fluid was used by the child:
- If it is acid, then the skin of the child acquires a characteristic shade. When exposed to hydrochloric acid, the damaged area becomes gray, with acetic acid - greenish, with sulfuric acid, the skin becomes black or dark gray.
- If the skin is damaged by alkali, the burn will be deep and wet with a thin, light crust. Concomitant alkaline poisoning may be present.
Urgently need to call an ambulance. Then you need to quickly clean the surface of the skin from chemicals. If powder has been used, shake it off thoroughly, do not soak it with water and apply a sterile dressing to a cleaned wound. In contact with the liquid, rinse the affected area under running cool water, then cover with moist sterile gauze.
In order for the doctor to be able to further understand the reason and determine how to treat a child’s burn, it is advisable for parents to find the used chemical agent and show it.
First aid for burns is extremely necessary, it will help to avoid negative consequences. The task of parents is to prevent injury to the child. If the baby is still too small, then he should always be in front of adults. Thus, many unpleasant moments can be avoided.
An electric burn occurs in contact with electrical appliances, from lightning strikes, etc. A similar injury differs from others in that a distinctive mark remains on the skin - a mark, and not only tissues, but also internal organs suffer greatly.
With an electric burn, the child is dizzy, nauseous, swelling appears, tachycardia, cramps, loss of consciousness, impaired breathing are possible.
You need to proceed as follows:
- First, you need to remove the child from the power source using a wooden or plastic object, or disconnect the power to the electrical device.
- Urgently call an emergency.
- If the child is unconscious, check for pulse and breathing. In their absence, conduct indirect heart massage and artificial respiration.
- Lay the baby so that the head is below the body - put a roll of things or a blanket under the body and legs.
- Try to find places of current input and output, apply sterile dressings to them.
- Reduce pain with pain medication - Ibuprofen, Nurofen.
If the injury is minor, than anoint the burn to the child, the ambulance manager will tell you. Even if a child has a minor burn, you should definitely seek qualified help, as there is a risk of problems with the heart and nervous system. After the examination, the doctor may prescribe treatment on an outpatient basis.
To prevent such situations, it is necessary to ensure the inaccessibility of outlets, isolate all electrical wires, explain to children that it is impossible to play with electrical appliances.
The result of injury can be a complication such as a burn disease. It proceeds as follows: there is a pain shock, accompanied by severe pain, chills, a frequent pulse, then intoxication of the body begins, manifested by seizures, fever, abnormal heart function, infection and suppuration of the wound. Against this background, pathologies such as nephritis, hepatitis, anemia, myocarditis, stomatitis, pneumonia, scarlet fever and otitis media can occur.
First aid for burns is extremely necessary, it will help to avoid negative consequences. The task of parents is to prevent injury to the child. If the baby is still too small, then he should always be in front of adults. Thus, it will be possible to avoid many unpleasant moments.