Installation of openings in a frame house is a rather complicated matter, which is associated with the complicated design and multilayered walls in such buildings. Installing windows with your own hands in a ready-made opening will not take much time, and installing a door will also not be a problem. But initially, you still need to make openings, the finishing of which takes a lot of time. They will be discussed in the article.
Finishing and arrangement of window openings in a frame house
Despite the fact that the theory of building frame houses seems extremely simple, when it comes to practice, things get complicated. This is especially true of the moment when it is necessary to make doorways and install windows with your own hands.
The main problem is that the frame walls are multi-layered. The external walls of prefabricated houses are distinguished by large layers (as standard, 9 layers, including thermal insulation, OSB boards, waterproofing, and so on).
With partitions (internal walls of the building), everything is somewhat simpler, since there are only 4 layers. For this reason, doorways are easier to install with your own hands than installing a window opening. Finishing openings - an optional procedure, but desirable.
Scheme of the device of a standard window opening in a frame house
Sometimes it happens so that the owner of the building, who carries out the construction with his own hands, makes the openings uneven, because of which they have to be leveled with cement mortar.
The external walls of prefabricated houses are multi-layered, usually they consist of 9 layers.
It is also worth adding that the installation and decoration of the door, the opening under it, in its technology is no different from the same work on creating window openings. So, it is worth analyzing the issue only with the installation of windows and openings under them, and only then this practice can be used to install the door.
The frame of a prefabricated house almost always consists of wooden elements (extremely rarely - of a metal profile). For these reasons, it is necessary to calculate the maximum permissible load on such elements, especially on the corner parts of the structure.
In order to ensure a uniform load on the foundation, it is customary to make both the upper and lower frame strapping, while the step of the racks will be about 1 meter.
An example of the arrangement of openings in a Canadian frame house using a header
This is very important, since, for example, it depends on this parameter whether it is possible to install a plastic window with a “warm double-glazed window” or not (the main problem of such windows is that they greatly increase the load on the house, especially if the latter is a shield , facilitated by how often small country houses are).
And if a person is going to make a frame house with panoramic windows, then the main thing is for the frames to stand flush, which is rather difficult to do with your own hands. This applies not only to window recesses, but also to those where the doors will stand.
So, as already noted above, the step of the racks should be about 1 meter, but where different holes for the windows will be located, this step must be wider. An important point: if a person wants to make the installation of windows whose length exceeds 120 centimeters, he should know that such windows in a frame house will complicate the design too much.
The device of the side supports in the window opening of the frame house
Firstly, it will require significant additional costs, and secondly, you can’t install such designs with your own hands. And it will take a lot of time.
Finishing holes can be done in 2 ways:
- using a device such as a crossbar (we are talking about the Finnish technology for the construction of frame houses),
- using a device such as a header (we are talking about Canadian technology for the construction of frame houses).
Both of these methods have proven themselves well, however, in Russia, builders prefer to use the Finnish method with crossbars, but both will be considered in the article.
In Russia, according to Canadian technology, frame houses are practically not built, preferring Finnish using a crossbar.
Crossbar and its device
As already noted, the Finnish way of organizing window openings is based on the use of a crossbar. Crossbars are large support beams, and on these beams all other structural elements of the house are supported, including, this also applies to windows and doors.
The scheme of the device of the doorway in the frame house
It is interesting that the support beam can be both upper and lower, however, only one is used. Most often, the Finnish method is used if there is a need to install a plastic window having a relatively large weight.
If we look specifically at the frame house, then the crossbar will be a board in it, which stands as if on a rib and is cut into the upper part of the frame rack. The function of this board is reduced mainly to the fact that it evenly distributes the load from the floor beams to the window openings, the same applies to the door. Most often, the crossbar is not integral, but consists of several different parts.
The fact is that planks longer than 6 meters are not used in the construction of frame houses, and the wall of the house, as a rule, is longer than 6 meters. It is interesting that the device fits exclusively with the rack for windows, which makes the design itself much more reliable.
Aperture in the wall of the frame house
True, there is one caveat: when building a house with your own hands, you must avoid the situation when the crossbar is docked with the stand in the place where there is already a junction of the horse harness. Otherwise, the design will turn out to be simply unstable, which can lead to the fact that the plastic window is trivial to fall.
By the way, experts recommend not using plastic frames in frame houses, but prefer wooden ones. On the other hand, finishing a wooden frame is also not an easy task, and it will have to be serviced constantly. With your own hands, making a crossbar is quite easy, by the way.
Installation of external doors in the house
The main watch door of our house, it allows the owner to enter the room (with keys) and prevents outsiders from entering. The purpose of the front door is to be aesthetic, reliable, soundproof and warm. Study the types of entrance doors, their standard sizes. To select a door, you need to consider the pros and cons of various options.
Header and his device
Finishing window openings according to the Canadian method involves the use of a header and double racks. The racks themselves are one main and the second additional (for this reason they are called double).
Window racks are also installed both above and below the window opening; their pitch is the same as usual for the frame. In walls where there are no windows or doors, the load from the upper trim is evenly transmitted through the racks to the foundation. But where there is a hole, the distance between the main and additional racks is quite large.
The crossbar in the frame wall of the Finnish house
For this reason, homes built according to Canadian technology, and establish a leader. Usually it consists of a double (in rare cases, even a built-up) beam, its height can vary in the range from 100 to 130 centimeters, but no less and no more.
The specific dimensions from this range will depend on the size of the window itself and the transverse beam (meaning lags of the overlap). The leader takes all the burden on himself and evenly distributes it on the racks and on the foundation. In general, it performs exactly the same function as the crossbar, so you can do both with your own hands.
True, experts argue that the installation of the header is not so popular, since it is caused by greater labor costs than installing the crossbar. However, if the finish of the holes is carried out by specialists, then this does not matter much. Finishing will cost about the same, regardless of whether it is carried out according to Canadian or Finnish technology.
Scheme of the gable of a frame house
The height of the header can range from 100 to 130 cm.
Solid wood front door
The main advantages of a wooden door are its environmental friendliness, sophistication (beautiful appearance), good soundproof properties. The disadvantages of massive doors include low thermal insulation characteristics, reduced reliability and the need for constant care during operation. In addition, when choosing an option from solid wood, installing a house door with your own hands requires certain skills.
Entrance doors made of metal usually have an insulated blank panel and a metal frame. The main advantages are good heat-insulating properties, strength, wear resistance, and minimum operational requirements. The installation of an entrance metal door in a wooden house is considered optimal, not only because of the above advantages, but also due to the ease of installation. Choosing reliable steel doors for the home, you get a warmer option with minimal labor.
Typically, when designing, it is taken into account which doors the customer intends to install, on the basis of this, they draw the doorways taking into account the necessary installation tolerances. The clearance from the door frame to the opening should be about 10 mm.
Installation of the external door in the frame house is carried out after finishing work on the facade. If for any reason you need to put the front door before cladding the facade, make an allowance for the planned thickness of the finish, with a margin of 2-3 mm.
Since the installation of entrance doors in the frame house and the installation of the interior door of the house has a similar sequence, we will analyze in detail the installation using the example of an internal door of a house.
Constructibility of a metal door:
- Door frame (jamb)
- Door leaf
- Anti-removable pin (2pcs.)
- Decorative shield
- Mineral wool
- Lock handle
- Stiffening rib
Installation of doors in a wooden house
Structurally, the door consists of a box, door leaf, hinges and a lock. For finishing the aperture are used extensions, crossbars, threshold (not always) and platbands. Finishing materials are not only aesthetics, but also noise absorption, heat preservation. The choice of lock is determined by the place of application. External doors are equipped with locks with a locking mechanism and keys. Doors inside the house - snap locks.
Installing doors in a wooden house requires careful and thorough execution of work in the correct sequence. Using the right algorithm allows you to rationally optimize the time and labor costs for installation.
Tools / materials required for installing exterior and interior doors in a home
Screwdriver, small sledgehammer, hacksaw, hammer, chisel, tape measure, level, corner. In the absence of level, you can use a thin nylon thread. How to apply it, we will tell below.
Self-tapping screws, mounting foam, bars.
Checking the geometry and preparing the doorway
When evaluating the geometry of the opening, the evenness of the walls, the vertical and horizontal strapping, the size of the gap are evaluated. In a frame house, doorways are usually made in size with the necessary tolerances of 5-10 mm. Sometimes, for one reason or another, the opening has a greater tolerance. Either the rough floors are not displayed with zero, or the wall turned out to be skewed, blockage. Before installing the door, the geometry of the opening must be measured, all shortcomings should be eliminated so that the installation of doors in the opening of the house does not cause difficulties. The presence of distortions is checked by level or plumb.
Methods for assessing the evenness of walls
Checking with kapron thread (plumb)
Nails are driven into the upper and lower corners of the opening or screws are screwed in. It is necessary to pull the thread from top to bottom in opposite corners to get the letter X. At the intersection, the threads should be in contact.
- Construction Level Check
You can check the evenness of the walls with a level to determine if there is a blockage and in which direction it occurs. When applying the level, the water bubble should be strictly in the center of the window.
If there is a gap at the intersection or the bubble is displaced, it is necessary from below, using a light sledgehammer and a board, tapping, move the wall in the desired direction. A board is required to protect the place of impact with a sledgehammer so that there are no dents on the wall. Do the work before closing the threads or aligning the level indicator. Try to minimize disadvantages.
Checking the horizontalness of the binding
Check the horizontal level, Using the lining of the fiberboard trimmings or other material of similar thickness, eliminate possible horizontal deviations. We put the whetstones on the side of the blockage, until the horizontal is precisely aligned. Bring to 100%. At the construction level, the drip indicator should be in the middle.
Check the floor level in the doorway. With mounted clean floors, the threshold is leveled, if necessary, by adjusting the thickness of the gasket under the canvas. Take extra millimeters to set the level.
On rough floors, an allowance must be made for the thickness of the intended coating.
Checking and adjusting clearance
With excessive tolerances in the doorway, it is necessary to reduce them. To do this, inserts are made from boards, plywood or OSB. Screw or nail the inserts vertically and along the top of the opening. The gap between the box and the opening should ideally be no more than 10 mm. Do not fasten the gaskets in the area of the hinges, otherwise they will complicate the subsequent adjustment of the door leaf relative to the box.
Fitting and fitting the door frame vertically
Before undertaking the installation of the inner door frame, it is preferable to remove the massive door leaf from the hinges. This will facilitate the installation and fitting of the element to the doorway and the plane of the walls. A preliminary fitting of the box in the opening is necessary to evaluate the size of the resulting gap.
It is necessary that the box is installed tightly in the opening. Now, with a level or plumb line, we check the vertical position relative to the opening and align the box in vertical planes.
After trying on, it will not be superfluous to make markings by installing bars along the perimeter of the opening. The bar is nailed to the end of the opening on the side, with a protrusion in the size of the gap.
Types of interior doors
For interior doors, there are much more options.
Doors from the massif are ecology, refined external, silence. However, they require more careful care and, as a rule, are not cheap.
This option does not have high sound insulation. But such doors are not susceptible to fungal diseases of wood and are easy to operate. The applied coating is laminate, veneer.
Economical, noise-absorbing, warm doors with good performance. However, they should not be used for baths, saunas and similar rooms because of the low moisture resistance.
Installing a pvc door in a wooden house provides good sound insulation and a long service life. The disadvantage is poor ventilation.
Features of installing doors in a frame house
Unlike other types of wooden houses, buildings constructed using frame technology do not shrink. For this reason, you can deal with the installation of entrance and interior doors immediately after their construction.
Installation of the front door in a frame house is characterized in that it is undesirable to put heavy doors, for example, of metal. Installation of a heavy door leaf will require additional reinforcement of the opening, for example, with a beam. Often, if a contractor is engaged in building a house, it also includes installing doors and making them, it is worth noting that it is very convenient, since they already have a large supply of tools and are sometimes very expensive.
Another important issue when installing the front door is the choice of direction in which it will open. A door opening outward will be safer for residents of the house than opening inward. This also complies with fire safety rules, when the direction of opening coincides with the direction of evacuation, and helps protect the room from intruders: opening the door leaf outside is much more difficult to crack or knock. However, there are no laws that would regulate the direction of opening, so owners of private houses can choose any.
Materials and tasks
For the manufacture of door leaf use wood, metal, plastic, veneer and a number of other materials. When choosing, they proceed primarily from whether the door will be interior or entrance. The choice is also affected by the interior design of the house and the preferences of the owner.
From wood, veneer, MDF, glass, plastic, etc. do a cloth of interior doors. Their main tasks are to provide sound insulation and to separate the rooms inside the building, i.e. they are primarily decorative.
On the contrary, the front door protects the interior of the house from the effects of the external environment. Its task is to protect against adverse natural factors and the penetration of intruders, so the requirements for it are higher than for interior paintings.
It is required to provide good thermal insulation from the external door structure, therefore the doorway is insulated with a special film. For the same purpose, the door leaf is insulated and, in addition, reinforced, for example, with metal, locks are installed and equipped with anti-burglary devices that prevent unauthorized entry.
For the installation of entrance doors in a frame house with your own hands, it is recommended to buy a finished door structure. Firstly, it will reduce the time it takes to complete the work, and secondly, it will help to avoid errors when installing in the doorway.
Installation of interior doors
A common mistake when installing interior door blocks is the choice of a box made of fiberboard. Due to their low strength, they quickly warp, in addition, hanging doors on such a box is a very laborious task.
The main criteria for assessing the quality of installation is the absence of distortions and drafts through poorly blown openings. Mastery comes with experience, therefore, in its absence, it is better to entrust the installation of the input unit to specialists, but it is worth learning how to do it yourself with your own hands, since they are changed much more often.